Category Archives: Collection data

A Very Happy & Open Birthday for the Pen

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Today marks the first birthday of our beloved Pen. It’s been an amazing year, filled will many iterations, updates, and above all, visits! Today is a celebration of the Pen, but also of all of our amazing partners whose continued support have helped to make the Pen a reality. So I’d like to start with a special thank you first and foremost to Bloomberg Philanthropies for their generous support of our vision from the start, and to all of our team partners at Sistel Networks, GE, Undercurrent, Local Projects, and Tellart.

Updates

Over the course of the past year, we’ve been hard at work, making the Pen Experience at Cooper Hewitt the best it can be. Right after we launched the Pen, we immediately realized there was quite a bit of work to do behind the scenes so that our Visitor Experience staff could better deal with deploying the Pen, and so that our visitors have the best experience possible.

Here are some highlights:

Redesigning post-purchase touchpoints – We quickly realized that our ticket purchase flow needed to be better. This article goes over how we tried to make improvements so that visitors would have a more streamlined experience at the Visitor Experience desk and afterwards.

Exporting your visits – The idea of “downloading” your data seemed like an obvious necessity. It’s always nice to be able to “get all your stuff.” Aaron built a download tool that archives all the things you collected or created and packages it in a nice browser friendly format. (Affectionately known as parallel-visit)

Improving Back-of-House Interactions – We spent a lot of time behind the visitor services desk trying to understand where the pain points were. This is an ongoing effort, which we have iterated on numerous times over the year, but this post recounts the first major change we made, and it made all the difference.

Collecting all the things – We realized pretty quickly that visitors might want to extend their experience after they’ve visited, or more simply,  save things on our website. So we added the idea of a “shoebox” so that visitors to our website could save objects, just as if they had a Pen and were in our galleries.

Label Writer – In order to deploy and rotate new exhibitions and objects, Sam built an Android-based application that allows our exhibition staff to easily program our NFC based wall labels. This tool means any staff member can walk around with an Android device and reprogram any wall label using our API. Cool!

Improving visitor information with paper – Onboarding new visitors is a critical component. We’ve since iterated on this design, but the basic concept is still there–hand out postcards with visual information about how to use the Pen. It works.

Visual consistency – This has more to do with our collection’s website, but it applies to the Pen as well, in that it helps maintain a consistent look and feel for our visitors during their post visit. This was a major overhaul of the collections website that we think makes things much easier to understand and helps provide a more cohesive experience across all our digital and physical platforms.

Iterating the Post-Visit Experience – Another major improvement to our post-visit end of things. We changed the basic ticket design so that visitors would be more likely to find their way to their stuff, and we redesigned what it looks like when they get there.

Press and hold to save your visit – This is another experimental deployment where we are trying to find out if a new component of our visitor experience is helpful or confusing.

On Exhibitions and Iterations – Sam summarizes the rollout of a major exhibition and the changes we’ve had to make in order to cope with a complex exhibition.

Curating Exhibition Video for Digital Platforms – Lisa makes her Labs debut with this excellent article on how we are changing our video production workflow and what that means when someone collects an object in our galleries that contains video content.

The Big Numbers

Back in August we published some initial numbers. Here are the high level updates.

Here are some of the numbers we reported in August 2015:

  • March 10 to August 10 total number of times the Pen has been distributed – 62,015
  • March 10 to August 10 total objects collected – 1,394,030
  • March 10 to August 10 total visitor-made designs saved – 54,029
  • March 10 to August 10 mean zero collection rate – 26.7%
  • March 10 to August 10 mean time on campus – 99.56 minutes
  • March 10 to August 10 post visit website retrieval rate – 33.8%

And here are the latest numbers from March 10, 2015 through March 9, 2016

  • March 10, 2015 to March 9, 2016 total number of times the Pen has been distributed – 154,812
  • March 10, 2015 to March 9, 2016 total objects collected – 3,972,359
  • March 10, 2015 to March 9, 2016 total visitor-made designs saved – 122,655
  • March 10, 2015 to March 9, 2016 mean zero collection rate – 23.8%
  • March 10, 2015 to March 9, 2016 mean time on campus – 110.63 minutes
  • Feb 25, 2016 to March 9, 2016 post visit website retrieval rate – 28.02%

That last number is interesting. A few weeks ago we added some new code to our backend system to better track this data point. Previously we had relied on Google Analytics to tell us what percentage of visitors access their post visit website, but we found this to be pretty inaccurate. It didn’t account for multiple access to the same visit by multiple users (think social sharing of a visit) and so the number was typically higher than what we thought reflected reality.

So, we are now tracking a visit page’s “first access” in code and storing that value as a timestamp. This means we now have a very accurate picture of our post visit website retrieval rate and we are also able to easily tell how much time there is between the beginning of a visit and the first access of the visit website–currently at about 1 day and 10 hours on average.

The Pen generates a massive amount of data. So, we decided to publish some of the higher level statistics on a public webpage which you can always check in on at https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/stats. This page reports daily and includes a few basic stats including a list of the most popular objects of all time. Yes, it’s the staircase models. They’ve been the frontrunners since we launched.

Those staircase models!

Those staircase models!

As you can see, we are just about to hit the 4 million objects collected mark. This is pretty significant and it means that our visitors on average have used the Pen to collect 26 objects per visit.

But it’s hard to gain a real sense of what’s going on if you just look at the high level numbers, so lets track some things over time. Below is a chart that shows objects collected by day for the last year.

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Objects collected by day since March 10, 2015

On the right you can easily see a big jump. This corresponds with the opening of the exhibition Beauty–Cooper Hewitt Design Triennial. It’s partly due to increased visitation following the opening, but what’s really going on here is a heavy use of object bundling. If you follow this blog, you’ll have recently read the post by Sam where he talks about the need to bundle many objects on one tag. This means that when a visitor taps his or her pen on a tag, they very often collect multiple objects. Beauty makes heavy use of this feature, bundling a dozen or so objects per tag in many cases and resulting in a dramatic increase in collected objects per day.

Pen checkouts per day since March 10, 2015

Pen checkouts per day since March 10, 2015

We can easily see that this, is in fact, what is happening if we look at our daily pen checkouts. Here we see a reasonable increase in checkouts following the launch of Beauty, but it’s not nearly as dramatic as the number of objects being collected each day.

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Immersion room creations by day since March 10, 2015

Above is a chart that shows how many designs were created in the immersion room each day over the past year. It’s also going to be directly connected to the number of visitors we have, but it’s interesting to see the mass of it along this period of time. The immersion room is one of our more popular interactive installations and it has been on view since we launched. So it’s not a big surprise it has a pretty steady curve to it. Also, keep in mind that this is only representative of “things saved” as we are not tracking the thousands of drawings that visitors make and walk away from.

We can slice and dice the Pen data all we want. I suppose we could take requests. But I have a better idea.

Open Data

Today we are opening up the Pen Data. This means a number of things, so listen closely.

  1. The data we are releasing is an anonymized and obfuscated version of some of the actual data.
  2. If you saved your visit to an account within thirty days of this post (and future data updates) we won’t include your data in this public release.
  3. This data is being licensed under Creative Commons – Attribution, Non-Commercial. This means a company can’t use this data for commercial purposes.
  4. The data we are releasing today is meant to be used in conjunction with out public domain collection metadata or our public API.

The data we are releasing is meant to facilitate the development of an understanding of Cooper Hewitt, its collection and interactive experiences. The idea here is that designers, artists, researchers and data analysts will have easy access to the data generated by the Pen and will be able to analyze  and create data visualizations so that we can better understand the impact our in-gallery technology has on visitors.

We believe there is a lot more going on in our galleries than we might currently understand. Visitors are spending incredible amounts of time at our interactive tables, and have been using the Pen in ways we hadn’t originally thought of. For example, we know that some visitors (children especial) try to collect every single object on view. We call these our treasure hunters. We also know that a percentage of our visitors take a pen and don’t use it to collect anything at all, though they tend to use the stylus end quite a bit. Through careful analysis of this kind of data, we believe that we will be able to begin to uncover new behavior patterns and aspects of “collecting” we haven’t yet discovered.

If you fit this category and are curious enough to take our data for a spin, please get in touch, we’d love to see what you create!

Random Button Television

AppleTV SDK Fun

Recently, Apple announced a number of updates to their product line, including a pretty major update to AppleTV, the small set top box that allows people to listen to their music collection, rent movies and TV shows, and stream audio from their phones to their televisions. The biggest update to AppleTV was definitely the fact that it now supports “Apps”, allowing iOS developers to design and build whatever they can imagine.

I put my hat in the ring, and applied for Apple’s lottery and about a week later a brand new AppleTV Software Development Kit showed up at the Labs.

To be honest, I haven’t had much interest in developing apps for a long time now. It’s problematic at best to go down the road of building something for iOS ( or any brand specific device ) in the context of a museum, and yes, it’s been a long while since I even glanced at Objective-C. But, the device is a curious object, and at the very least made me wonder what it might be like to introduce a way to open up access to our collections through the warm and inviting glow of a television screen. Imagine it for a moment, sitting there atop your dresser, or mounted to your living room wall, next to the fire place, in full HD. The television, no matter how you divide it up over the years has a pretty permanently fixed position in our homes, and in our minds.

As a little side project, I decided to see what I could do with the AppleTV SDK and our Collections API. I decided ahead of time I wouldn’t spend too much time on this, and although I wound up spending at least one night reading up on NSDictionary and a few other oddball data-types in Objective-C, I was able to stick with my original plan and quickly built a little “Hello AppleTV” app that simply allows the “viewer” to flip through objects in our collection by pressing the “select” button on their remotes.

It uses one API method, our old favorite cooperhewitt.objects.getRandom, and yeah, that’s all it does. Keep pressing the select button and you continue to get objects. It’s quite fun!

AppleTV XCode

So here’s how it works. As we say over here at the Cooper Hewitt Labs, “Working code always wins.”

  1. There is a ViewController. This is the thing that represents the screen on your AppleTV, and the thing you can apply all of the subsequent properties to.
  2. There is an ImageView. This is where the image is applied to.
  3. There are a couple Labels which simply allow you to display the title and object ID for each object.
  4. There is a asynchronous way of calling the API.

Here’s the code. There’s basically just the two files for the ViewController that define everything we’re talking about. Beyond that, there is some “wiring up” of the ImageView and Labels so the visuals know what code they are connected to, and there is really the one method “fetchRandom” that does the work of calling the API, parsing the response, and storing the things we are interested in.

And here is the end result.

To be quite honest, we probably won’t be uploading this to the iTunes store. It’s really just a “Hello World” app and only meant to be a conversation starter for staff members who happen by the Labs area. But it does make me wonder — what else could museums do with a device like this?

The device itself is a curious one, with plenty of built in human interface challenges and opportunities. Sitting back, clicking the remote and checking out collection objects, isn’t really my idea of an exciting way to spend an evening at home, but take this a few steps further, maybe a few additional API calls, and who knows what might unfold.

Long live RSS

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I just made a new Tumblr. It’s called “Recently Digitized Design.” It took me all of five minutes. I hope this blog post will take me all of ten.

But it’s actually kinda cool, and here’s why. Cooper Hewitt is in the midst of mass digitization project where we will have digitized our entire collection of over 215K objects by mid to late next year. Wow! 215K objects. That’s impressive, especially when you consider that probably 5000 of those are buttons!

What’s more is that we now have a pretty decent “pipeline” up and running. This means that as objects are being digitized and added to our collections management system, they are automatically winding up on our collections website after winding their way through a pretty hefty series of processing tasks.

Over on the West Coast, Aaron, felt the need to make a little RSS feed for these “recently digitized” so we could all easily watch the new things come in. RSS, which stands for “Rich Site Summary”, has been around forever, and many have said that it is now a dead technology.

Lately I’ve been really interested in the idea of Microservices. I guess I never really thought of it this way, but an RSS or ATOM feed is kind of a microservice. Here’s a highlight from “Building Microservices by Sam Newman” that explains this idea in more detail.

Another approach is to try to use HTTP as a way of propagating events. ATOM is a REST-compliant specification that defines semantics ( among other things ) for publishing feeds of resources. Many client libraries exist that allow us to create and consume these feeds. So our customer service could just publish an event to such a feed when our customer service changes. Our consumers just poll the feed, looking for changes.

Taking this a bit further, I’ve been reading this blog post, which explains how one might turn around and publish RSS feeds through an existing API. It’s an interesting concept, and I can see us making use of it for something just like Recently Digitized Design. It sort of brings us back to the question of how we publish our content on the web in general.

In the case of Recently Digitized Design the RSS feed is our little microservice that any client can poll. We then use IFTTT as the client, and Tumblr as the output where we are publishing the new data every day. 

RSS certainly lives up to its nickname ( Really Simple Syndication ), offering a really simple way to serve up new data, and that to me makes it a useful thing for making quick and dirty prototypes like this one. It’s not a streaming API or a fancy push notification service, but it gets the job done, and if you log in to your Tumblr Dashboard, please feel free to follow it. You’ll be presented with 10-20 newly photographed objects from our collection each day.

UPDATE:

So this happened: http://twitter.com/recentlydigital

Print The Exhibition – The Label Book Generator

As a Peter A. Krueger intern this summer, I am working in both the Digital and Emerging Media and Cross-Platform Publishing Departments at the Cooper Hewitt. Since I am traversing the two departments, a project that allows me to learn from each and create something that benefits both is of course ideal. The Label Book Generator does this in a twofold manner: It allows me the opportunity to learn and write code to develop a digital product, which in turn, serves to produce a physical publication of interpretive content for an exhibition.

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Label Book Generator–’How Posters Work’ exhibition page

Currently a prototype, The Label Book Generator is a tool that creates a printed publication of object labels for each exhibition at the Cooper Hewitt. In its most basic use, Visitor Services at the museum can navigate to an exhibition from a list on the website’s homepage and once on an exhibition page, press Command-P (or File > Print) to generate a PDF with an initial cover page followed by a single label on each page–all entirely set in a larger font-size.

What initially prompted the development of this prototype was to solve readability issues visitors may have with existing wall labels. This does not imply that the current label design needs to change or be set in a larger font-size, but instead that the labeling system as a whole should be augmented with something to make them more accessible, to provide a magnifying glass of sorts when needed.

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Publication in use in the gallery

The entire process proved to be invaluable as a learning experience. From the start it was obvious that I needed to leverage the museum’s API to access object data by exhibition to ultimately populate fields in each label. As the Label Book Generator website is currently, the selection and order of the fields are in accordance with a predefined template that begins to apply the typographic guidelines of the existing wall labels. As a graphic designer it was particularly interesting for me to consider the meticulous planning that is usually involved in typesetting parallel to the time spent writing the code. Whereas typically, these two processes are dealt with in succession.

Since the end result needed to be a book, I was set on formatting the data in a markdown document that would have typographic styles manually applied in InDesign. A Python script was written to create a markdown document with syntax assigned to each field, e.g., titles would be prepended with ‘#’ to be a top level header, dates with ‘##’ to be a second level, etc.

Stumbling along with my rudimentary skills in Python–and at one point rewriting the whole thing in Javascript, only to go back to Python–led me to conclude that outputting the final document with InDesign can be circumvented. With the much-appreciated help of Micah Walter, it was settled that rather than generating a markdown file, I should instead produce a small web application using Python and Flask as a framework. The most salient aspect of the entire project now being a simple print style sheet for the website that automatically generates the same final document that having to manually use InDesign would have produced (Here is the code available on Github).

With a central concern for typography, the print style sheet seamlessly flows all the content into any fixed page format, which in this case would be a printable PDF. The printed document once bound can be considered an exhibition catalog reduced to its essential elements: A list of every work, with their respective information and descriptions (when available).

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Interior spread of printed publication

The Label Book Generator solves the initial prompt of assisting those hard of seeing. However, considering that the website from the get-go is built with a responsive layout and scalable typography (again due to the simultaneity of graphic design and web development) there are a number of opportunities to expand it’s role and purpose.

The typography, padding and margins set in REMs (Root EM), rather than fixed sizes, allows for the ability to control the base size and relatively adjust the measurements. A future version of the website can include in the interface a means to control how large or small the base size of the document should be, given the dimensions of the fixed format–whether it be a standard letter-sized PDF, or otherwise.

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Browser print dialog box

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Cover page of printed publication generated from the website

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Interior spread of printed publication

When presenting the prototype to others here at the museum Katie Shelly brought up an interesting future use case involving blind visitors and screen reader software. In addition to the possibilities with printable versions of the Label Book Generator, the website itself provides a responsive mobile view of all the labels which could theoretically be read to the visitors via their personal device.

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Mobile view of website

Finally, the printed label book serves as a means to visualize the collection database. If a label in the book and website is missing a field, it reflects an oversight at the ‘source of truth’. In other words, there is a one-to-one relationship between the fields in both the labels and the database. Ultimately, this brings to mind the commonplace workflow of producing wall labels that are manually written, designed, and edited (on this topic see also: Label Whisperer). In perhaps a later version, a similar process of using the museum’s API to automate the process of generating the label book, could theoretically be applied to the entire production of wall labels for the museum.

Missing tags for the object on recto

Missing tags for ‘Amerika’

Give the Generator a go!

Object concordances – what is the simplest thing to match like with like?

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Do you notice anything special about this screenshot of Charles Eames’ famous No. 670 Chair?

It might be hard to see because it’s a tall screenshot and this is a small thumbnail. Have a look at the large version. Hint: It’s not the part where the chair is missing in the picture. It’s actually this, on the right-hand side of the object details:

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Object concordances! With other museums! To the same objects in their collections!! On their own websites !!!

Before you get too excited (and think its actual working ‘Linked Data’), we should point out that as of this writing we have only “concordified” four distinct objects – this one, this one, this one and that one – eight times with four separate organizations, one of which is our own shop, so there is a lot of work left to do.

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If you look carefully you can see that most of the concordances, to date, were added within about 90 minutes of one another. That’s because Seb and I were talking about object concordances over lunch that day and agreed that we could probably push the simplest and dumbest thing out the door before I went home. It has been something that has been on the agenda since mid-2012.

Specifically, we maintain a fixed list of institutions with whom we will “concordify” objects. If your institution isn’t on that list yet it’s not personal. We can add as many institutions as we want but we think the narrow focus helps to explain the purpose of the tool. Then we simply record that institutions unique ID, the object ID for something in our collection and the object ID for something in their collection. That’s it.

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Currently the tools for adding concordances, or editing institutions, are … terrible.

(Or rather, they are the unadorned plumbing that makes the whole thing work. So they are beautiful and elegant in their own way but most people would be forgiven for not seeing those qualities right away.)

Short-term the goal is to build some friendlier “admin” web page for a few more people to add concordances without having to worry about the technical details. Medium-term the goal is to create restricted API methods for doing fancy-pants buttons and pop-up dialogs on the object pages themselves to allow staff to add concordances as they think of them or are otherwise just poking around the collections website. Maybe in the long term, ‘the crowd’ might be invited to do it too.

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Somewhere between those two things we will also build proper “index” pages on the collections website of all the objects that have been concordified, all the institutions that have concordified objects and so on. Just like we’ve already done for people.

The other thing we’ll do shortly is make sure that these concordances are included in the CC0 Cooper Hewitt collections metadata dump which is available on GitHub.

When we said “the simplest thing” we meant it.

There isn’t much yet but it’s a start – a tangible proof of what it could be – and if we’ve done our job right then it is one of those things that will grow exponentially, as always, as time and circumstance permit.

(If you’ve been a long time reader you might remember we did Rijkscolors back in 2013 as an experiment in automatically matching objects – but we were undone by language and structural differences in metadata, and the reality that humans might still be better at this at least until the sector irons a few things out)

Collect all the things – shoeboxes, shop items and the Pen

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You can now collect any object in the collection, or on display, from the collections website itself. Just like in the galleries there is a small “collect” icon on the top right-hand side of every object page on the collections website. It’s not just individual object pages but also all the object list pages, too. So many “collect” icons!

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  Objects that haven’t been collected yet have a grey icon.

  Objects that have been collected in the galleries, as part of a visit to the museum, have a pink icon.

  Objects that that have been collected on the collections website have an orange icon.

Simply click the grey icon to collect an object or click one of the orange or pink icons to remove or un-collect that object.

That’s it!

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Just like visit items, things you collect on the website have a permanent URL that can be made public to share with other people and can be given a bespoke title or description. Objects that you collect on the collections website live in something we’re calling the “shoebox”.

You can get your to shoebox by visiting https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/users/YOUR-USERNAME/shoebox or if you’re already logged in to your Cooper Hewitt account by visiting https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/you/shoebox/.

There is also a handy link in the Your stuff menu, located at the top-left of every page on the collections website.

The shoebox is the set of all the objects you’ve collected (or created) on the website or during your visits to the museum. Although visits and visit items overlap with things in your shoebox we still treat them differently because although you need to be logged in to you Cooper Hewitt account to add things to your shoebox a visit to the museum can be entirely anonymous if a visitor so chooses.

The default view for the shoebox is to display everything together in reverse-chronological order but you can filter the view to show only things collected online or things collected during a visit. You can also see the set of all the objects you’ve made public or private.

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logged out view (large version)

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logged in view (large version)

But it’s not just objects, either. You can already collect videos during your museum visit so those are included too. Ultimately the only limit to what you might collect with the Pen is time-and-typing. Things we’re thinking about making collect-able include: entire exhibitions or the introductory texts on the wall for an exhibition or people or individual rooms in the Mansion.

Museum retail

We’ve started this process by allowing you to collect things in the museum Shop.

By “things in the Shop” we mean all the things that have ever been sold in the Shop over the years. And by “all the things” we mean almost all the things. There is some technical hoop-jumping related to inventory management systems and that is why we don’t have everything yet but we’ll get there in time.

We are a captial-D design museum with a capital-D design shop and many of the things that have been available in the Shop have gone on to become part of our permanent collection so it only makes sense to give them a home on the collections website. In fact MoMA already does similarly with their “find related products in the MoMA Store” feature though ours is a bit different.

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You can see for yourself at https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/shop

The /shop section is divided in two parts: Brands and Items (and all the items for a given brand of course). There isn’t a whole lot of extra information beyond titles and links to the SHOP Cooper Hewitt website for those items that are currently in-stock but it’s a start. Like the rest of the collections website we’ve started with the idea that providing permanent stable URLs that people can have confidence we create something that can be improved on over time.

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Shop items and brands don’t get updated as regularly as we’d like yet. We are still working through the fiddly details of bridging our systems with the Shop’s ecommerce and POS system and some things still need to be done by hand. We’ve been able to get this far though so we expect things will only get better.

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You might be wondering…

You might be reading this and starting to wonder Hmmm… does that mean I can also collect things in the Shop as I walk around the museum with the Pen? the answer is… Yes!

As of this writing there are only one or two items that can be collected with the Pen because the Shop staff are still getting familiar with the tools and thinking about how making collect-able labels changes in their day-to-day workflow. The obvious future of this might be the infamous ‘wedding register’, however we believe that many museum visitors actually would like to bookmark objects to possibly buy later, or just remember as part of their overall visit to the ‘museum campus’.

Practically what that has meant are some changes to Sam‘s “tag writer” application (the subject of a future blog post) to fetch shop items via our API and then letting the Shop folks decide what they want to tag and when they want to do it.

There has been a whole lot of change here over the course of the last three years and allowing the various parts of the museum warm up to the possibilities that the Pen starts to afford at their own pace and with not only a minimum of fuss but plenty of wiggle-room for experimentation is really important.

In the meantime we hope that you enjoy collecting at least more, if not all, of the things that make up the museum.

Sorting, Synonyms and a Pretty Pony

We’ve been undergoing a massive rapid-capture digitization project here at the Cooper Hewitt, which means every day brings us pictures of things that probably haven’t been seen for a very, very long time.

As an initial way to view all these new images of objects, I added “date last photographed” to our search index and allowed it to be sorted by on the search results page.

That’s when I found this.

Figure Of A Pony (Germany), ca. 1930; Designed by Walter Bosse (Austrian, 1904 – 1979); glazed earthenware; 16h x 19.5w x 9.4d cm (6 5/16 x 7 11/16 x 3 11/16 in. ); Gift of Victor Wiener; 2000-47-20

I hope we can all agree that this pony is adorable and that if there is anything else like it in our collection, it needs to be seen right now. I started browsing around the other recently photographed objects and began to notice more animal figurines:

Rooster Figure, 20th century; China; porcelain; 28.4 x 15 x 13 cm (11 3/16 x 5 7/8 x 5 1/8 in.); Gift of J. Lionberger Davis; 1968-1-26

Figure (China); porcelain; 8 x 12.5 x 6.4 cm (3 1/8 x 4 15/16 x 2 1/2 in.); Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ernest du Pont; 1980-55-2

As serendipitous as it was that I came across this wonderful collection-within-a-collection by browsing through recently-photographed objects, what if someone is specifically looking for this group? The whole process shows off some of the work we did last summer switching our search backend over to Elasticsearch (which I recently presented at Museums and the Web). We wanted to make it easier to add new things so we could provide users (and ourselves) with as many “ways in” to the collection as possible, as it’s those entry points that allow for more emergent groupings to be uncovered. This is great for somebody who is casually spending time scrolling through pictures, but a user who wants to browse is different from a user who wants to search. Once we uncover a connected group of objects, what can we do to make it easier to find in the future?

Enter synonyms. Synonyms, as you might have guessed, are a text analysis technique we can use in our search engine to relate words together. In our case, I wanted to relate a bunch of animal names to the word “animal,” so that anyone searching for terms like “animals” or “animal figurines” would see all these great little friends. Like this bear.

Figure, 1989; Made by Dulevo Porcelain Factory ; porcelain, enameled and gilded decoration; 1990-111-1

The actual rule (generated with the help of Wikipedia’s list of animal names) is this:

 "animal => aardvark, albatross, alligator, alpaca, ant, anteater, antelope, ape, armadillo, baboon, badger, barracuda, bat, bear, beaver, bee, bird, bison, boar, butterfly, camel, capybara, caribou, cassowary, cat, kitten, caterpillar, calf, bull, cheetah, chicken, rooster, chimpanzee, chinchilla, chough, clam, cobra, cockroach, cod, cormorant, coyote, puppy, crab, crocodile, crow, curlew, deer, dinosaur, dog, puppy, salmon, dolphin, donkey, dotterel, dove, dragonfly, duck, poultry, dugong, dunlin, eagle, echidna, eel, elephant, seal, elk, emu, falcon, ferret, finch, fish, flamingo, fly, fox, frog, gaur, gazelle, gerbil, panda, giraffe, gnat, goat, sheep, goose, poultry, goldfish, gorilla, blackback, goshawk, grasshopper, grouse, guanaco, fowl, poultry, guinea, pig, gull, hamster, hare, hawk, goshawk, sparrowhawk, hedgehog, heron, herring, hippopotamus, hornet, swarm, horse, foal, filly, mare, pig, human, hummingbird, hyena, ibex, ibis, jackal, jaguar, jellyfish, planula, polyp, scyphozoa, kangaroo, kingfisher, koala, dragon, kookabura, kouprey, kudu, lapwing, lark, lemur, leopard, lion, llama, lobster, locust, loris, louse, lyrebird, magpie, mallard, manatee, mandrill, mantis, marten, meerkat, mink, mongoose, monkey, moose, venison, mouse, mosquito, mule, narwhal, newt, nightingale, octopus, okapi, opossum, oryx, ostrich, otter, owl, oyster, parrot, panda, partridge, peafowl, poultry, pelican, penguin, pheasant, pigeon, bear, pony, porcupine, porpoise, quail, quelea, quetzal, rabbit, raccoon, rat, raven, deer, panda, reindeer, rhinoceros, salamander, salmon, sandpiper, sardine, scorpion, lion, sea urchin, seahorse, shark, sheep, hoggett, shrew, skunk, snail, escargot, snake, sparrow, spider, spoonbill, squid, calamari, squirrel, starling, stingray, stinkbug, stork, swallow, swan, tapir, tarsier, termite, tiger, toad, trout, poultry, turtle, vulture, wallaby, walrus, wasp, buffalo, carabeef, weasel, whale, wildcat, wolf, wolverine, wombat, woodcock, woodpecker, worm, wren, yak, zebra"

Where every word to the right of the => automatically gets added to a search for a word to the left.

Not only does our new search stack provide us with a useful way to discover emergent relationships, but it makes it easy for us to “seal them in,” allowing multiple types of user to get the most from our collections site.